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17 Zvinogoneka Budiriro Dzekusimudzira

Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa
The Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) epasi rose akagovaniswa nekuda kwehurombo, kudzikisira kusaenzana, uye kuchengetedza nyika na2030. Iyo 2030 Agenda yeSustainable Development (SDD) yakagamuchirwa neUnited Nations mu2015 nenyika dzenhengo inopa chirongwa chakafanana cherunyararo uye kubudirira mu ramangwana revanhu nepasi. Vane gumi nevaviri Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa ndiwo marongedzero epasirese epasi rose ekuvaka nyika iri nani kune vanhu vese nepasi redu muna 2030. 
The 17 Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) ayo akagamuchirwa ne United Nations General Assembly muna 2015 ipurani yenyika irinani, inogadzikana panosvika gore ra2030. Ma SDG idudziro yakawedzerwa yezvisere zveMillennium Development Goals (MDGs) yaitonga danho repasi rose rekudzora hurombo hwakanyanya pakati pa2000 na2015. Kekutanga munhoroondo, nharaunda yepasi rose yakwanisa kutsanangura chirongwa chepasirese, chakazara chebudiriro yakagadzikana inosanganisira yemagariro zvinangwa zvichibva paMillennium Development Goals uye zvinangwa zvezvakatipoteredza, zvichitevera kubva kuRio 1992 Declaration uye nemisangano inotevera yeCOP. MunaGunyana 2015, iyo UN General Assembly yakagamuchira iyo 2030 Agenda yeSustainable Development (USADED), inosanganisira iyo gumi nemanomwe. Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa.   
Sechirongwa cheramangwana riri nani, rakasimba, 17 Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) inotaura pasi rose matambudziko isu takatarisana kusanganisira idzo dzine chekuita nehurombo, kusaenzana, mamiriro ekunze, uye kudzikisira kwezvakatipoteredza, budiriro, rugare, uye kururamisira. Sekureva kwesangano reWorld Health Organisation, hosha dzisingatapuriranwe (dzakadai sehosha yemoyo uye yekufema, gomarara, sitiroko, uye chirwere cheshuga dzinouraya vanhu vane mamirioni makumi matatu nemaviri pagore, uye masekondi ega ega e32 munhu anofa nechirwere chisingaperi kana chirwere chinotyisa. .    
yavo 17 Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa kuvaka uye kuenda mhiri kwekubudirira uye zvinangwa zveMillennium Development Goals (MDGs) kusanganisa zvitsva, zvinoenderana. matambudziko sekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze, kusaenzana kwehupfumi, kushandiswa kunoenderera mberi, runyararo, uye kururamisira. KuISGlobal, isu tinoshanda pamapurojekiti asingatarise SDG 3 chete (hutano uye kugara zvakanaka) uye mamwe maSDG anokanganisa hutano asiwo SDGs 9 (innovation), SDGs gumi (kuderedza kusaenzana), gumi nerimwe (maguta anogara), gumi nematatu (mamiriro ekunze). kuchinja kuderedza) uye 10 (kudyidzana pakati penyika dzichiri kusimukira uye dzichiri kusimukira). The Division of Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) mukati meDhipatimendi reEconomic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) inoita basa rakakosha mukuongorora kurongeka kweiyo 2030 Agenda neUnited Nations uye mukusimudzira uye nekutaura zvine chekuita neSDGs.    
MaSDGs chirongwa chinovavarira kusimudzira runyararo nebudiriro, kubvisa urombo nekuchengetedza pasi. Iwo anozivikanwa zvakanyanya seakakosha kune ramangwana kusimudzira kwePasi. The 17 Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa Zvinotevera:

  1. No Urombo
  2. Zero Nzara
  3. Utano Hwakanaka uye zvakanaka
  4. Quality dzidzo
  5. Gender Kuenzanirana
  6. Water yakachena Utsanana
  7. Kutengeka uye Zvakachena Energy
  8. Vakadzikama Work uye Economic Growth
  9. Industry, Innovation uye Infrastructure
  10. Kuderedzwa Kusarongeka
  11. Sustainable Cities uye Communities
  12. Musingavayemedzi zvinodyiwa uye Production
  13. Climate Action
  14. Life Below Water
  15. Life pamusoro Land
  16. Runyararo uye Ruramisiro Masangano Akasimba
  17. Kubatana kuzadzisa Chinangwa

 
Sezvazvinoitika, SDG 1 (hurombo) inobatana nemamwe ma SDG uye ichave iri munzira na2030. Tinogona kutarisira kubatana kwakakosha pakati pezvinangwa 3 (hutano), 7 (simba risinganetsi rakachena), 8 (basa rakanaka uye kukura kwehupfumi. ), uye 9 (indasitiri, hunyanzvi, uye zvigadzirwa).   
Kubvisa urombo, kusimbisa hupfumi kuburikidza nekuvandudza kwakadzika midzi uye zvivakwa zvemazuva ano zvicharamba zviri hwaro huchawanikwa huzhinji hwemamwe maSDGs. Kutengeserana pakati peiyo yakasimba SDG 11 (maguta akasimba nemataundi) inoteverwa neSDG 14 (hupenyu, mvura, 16 (runyararo nekururamisira) nemasangano akasimba) uye gumi nenomwe (zvinangwa zvekudyidzana) uye gumi nenhatu (kuchengetedzwa kwemamiriro ekunze) (semuenzaniso Kubvumirana kwakakura. kuti maSDGs inzvimbo imwe chete yehurumende, hwaro hwehurumende kuti dzigadzirise marongero uye zvirongwa zvekubatsira budiriro kupedza urombo uye kuvandudza hupenyu hwevarombo uye nzvimbo yekuunganidza masangano asiri ehurumende kuti hurumende dzizvidavirire ndicho chikonzero. kuti maSDGs akaderedzwa.Nekuda kweizvozvo, hurongwa hwemasangano hwe17-13. Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa zvinotarisirwa kutambirwa muna 2021. UNESCO yakabatsira kugadzira iyo dzidzo 2030 Agenda, iyo inopfupikiswa muSDG 4.    
Kambani yakapinda mukushandiswa kweSustainable Development Evaluation Tool yakagadziridzwa neTRUCOST, inotungamira inopa kabhoni uye data yezvakatipoteredza uye kuongororwa kwenjodzi, kubatsira makambani kuona njodzi nemikana inoenderana nezvinangwa zvekusimudzira. Iyo kambani inoiswa pekutanga muOpenODs Index, iyo inoongorora kugona, kubuda pachena, uye kuzadzikiswa. Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) uye inowana zvibodzwa zvepamusoro muzvikamu zvitatu zvebudiriro zveAgenda 2030 (kurongeka, kugarisana, kuita, uye kutarisa) kweOpenOD (Open SDG system). Kambani iyi inoshanda kudzivirira kusvibiswa kwemvura, chinova chinhu chakakosha mukuona hutano hweveruzhinji.  

urombo

Chinangwa 1 cheSustainable Development (SDG 1 kana Global Goal 1), imwe yegumi nenomwe Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa iyo United Nations yakagadzwa muna 2015, inonzi No Poverty. Inotarisa kwete chete kune vanhu vanogara muurombo, asiwo pamabasa avanovimba nawo, uye nemitemo yemagariro evanhu inokurudzira nekudzivirira urombo. Kuzadzikisa SDG 1 kunosanganisira kutsvaga mhinduro dzekutyisidzira kutsva kunokonzerwa nekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze uye kukakavara. Ndicho chikonzero kugumisa urombo mumarudzi ahwo ose kunoda kubatanidzwa kwenharaunda yose yenyika. Kupedzwa kwourombo mumarudzi ahwo ose kunoramba kuri kumwe kukurusa matambudziko takatarisana nevanhu. Kuderedzwa kwehurombo hwakanyanya kubvira 1993 kubva pa1.9 bhiriyoni kusvika pavanhu vane mamirioni 689 mumakore makumi maviri nemanomwe chete ndeimwe yemasimba ane simba kwazvo. Chokwadi, kudzikisira kunoshamisa kwehurombo hwakanyanya mumakumi emakore achangopfuura kwave kuri kweimwe yebudiriro nyaya dzekusimudzira pasirese. 
Vanhu vanopfuura mamiriyoni e700, kana 10% yehuwandu hwepasi rose, vari kurarama muurombo hwakanyanya iye zvino - kutambura kuti vawane zvinodiwa zvakakosha zvakadai semvura, dzidzo, uye kuwana mvura nehutsanana kutaura zvishoma. Kubva muna 1990, nhamba yevarombo pasi rose yakaderera nepakati. Chikamu chevashandi vemarudzi ose vanogara mu "urombo hukuru" yakakura kubva ku14% mu2010 kusvika ku7.8% mu2015 uye 6.6% muna 2019. Inofungidzirwa kuti 40-60 mamiriyoni evanhu vachamanikidzwa muurombo hwakanyanya, kuwedzera kwekutanga kwehurombo hwepasi rose mune zvakawanda. anopfuura makore makumi maviri. MuSub-Saharan Africa, urombo huchadonha nepakati pehafu yegore, uye urombo hwakanyanya huchapedzwa pasi peSDGs panosvika 20. Chinangwa 2040 chine chinangwa chekudzikisa nehafu chikamu chehuwandu hwevanhu vari kurarama muurombo munyika imwe neimwe maererano ne mutsara wehurombo hwenyika. Panguva imwecheteyo, vadzidzi vanogona kudzidza nezve nzira dzekudzosera mamiriro ezvinhu kumashure uye kuona matanho ekutsigira kuedza kwekuderedza urombo. Muna 12 World Development Report, World Bank yakaedza kushandisa mupimo wakafanana wokuyera urombo hwakanyanyisa: avhareji yenyika mutsara wourombo nokuda kwenyika dzine mari yakaderera pamunhu mumwe nomumwe, vachishandisa mitengo yokutsinhana inochinja-chinja nemitengo yokutsinhana pamusika. Hazvitore kusaenzana kwemari pakati pevarombo kana kudzika kwehurombo. Izvi zvinowedzera dambudziko, zvinowedzera kusagadzikana kwezvematongerwo enyika uye zvemagariro, uye zvinogona kutungamira kumarudzi ese emakakatanwa. Pamatanho ese, chinangwa ndechekusimudzira kuziva kwevadzidzi nezve izvo zvavanogona kuzviitira ivo uye nharaunda yavo. Mushure mekuvandudza mumakore achangopfuura kubva pa3.6% muna1990 kusvika pa10% muna2015, maitiro aya adzikira ku8.2% muna2019 mushure mekudzikira mumakore apfuura. A-zuva mutsara unobva pakuunganidzwa kwemitsara yenyika kubva kuzvidzidzo zvedzidzo kune makumi maviri nemaviri nyika dzichiri kusimukira kubva kuma22.

Zero Nzara

Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2) chinangwa chepasi rose [2] chakanangana nekuzadzisa zero nzara. Chinangwa chechipiri chine chinangwa chekupedza nzara panosvika gore ra2 kuburikidza nechikafu chibatiso, kuvandudzwa kwezvokudya zvinovaka muviri, uye kusimudzirwa kwekurima kunoenderera mberi. Mutoro wakapetwa katatu wekushaya zvokudya zvinovaka muviri, kushaya zvokudya zvinovaka muviri, nzara yakavanzika uye kufutisa kunotyisidzira kurarama, kukura, uye kukura kwevana nevechiri kuyaruka. Vana vanodyiswa vanokwanisa zviri nani kukura, kudzidza nekutora chikamu munharaunda dzavanogara, uye vari kushingirira kuzvirwere, njodzi, nezvimwe zvinokurumidza kuitika. Hurongwa hwa2019 hunoratidza kuti vanhu vanosvika 690 miriyoni, kana kuti 8.9 muzana yehuwandu hwevanhu pasi rose, vachange vachiziya nenzara muna 2019. Vanhu vanosvika mamiriyoni mazana masere nemakumi maviri nerimwe vakashaya kudya kunovaka muviri muna 821 nekuda kwekuparara kwenharaunda, kusanaya kwemvura, uye kurasikirwa kwezvipenyu zvakasiyana-siyana. Vamwe vanhu mamiriyoni 2017 havasati vava nezvokudya zvinovaka muviri, nhamba inotarisirwa kuwedzera nemamwe mabhiriyoni maviri panosvika 795. World Food Programme inoratidza kuti vanhu mamiriyoni 2 vari kutambura nenzara inokonzerwa nokuchinja kwemamiriro ekunze, kurwisana kunokonzerwa nevanhu, uye upfumi hwenyika. downturns. Ruzhinji zvikuru rwevane nzara runogara munyika dzichiri kusimukira umo 2050% yevagari vemo haina zvokudya zvakakwana. WHO inoda kubatsira mukuchengetedza zvipenyu uye kusimbisa kugona kugadzirisa kushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze mukusanaya kwemvura, mamiriro ekunze akanyanya, nedzimwe njodzi. Kushaikwa kwezvokudya zvinovaka muviri uye nzara yakanyanyisa zvimhingamupinyi zvikuru kubudiriro inopfuurira. Denda risati rasvika, huwandu hwevanhu vari kutambura nenzara uye kushomeka kwechikafu hwakawedzera kubva muna 135. Denda iri rakawedzera kusasimba uye kusakwana kwegadziriro yechikafu chepasi rose, zvichiwedzera mazana emamiriyoni evamwe vanhu kune vasina kudya kunovaka muviri, zvichisiya chinangwa chekupedza nzara. kure kure. The Covid-19 denda richapinza vamwe vanhu 83 kusvika 132 miriyoni munzara isingaperi panosvika 2020. 
 
The Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) chinangwa chekupedza nzara nekushaya chikafu chinovaka muviri kusvika muna 2030 uye kuona kuti munhu wese, kunyanya vana nevanotambura, vawana chikafu chakanaka uye chinovaka muviri gore rose. Chinangwa chechipiri chinoti panosvika gore ra2 vanhu vese vanofanirwa kuwana chikafu chibatiso uye kupedza nzara nemarudzi ose ekushaya zvokudya zvinovaka muviri. Izvi zvinogona kuwanikwa nekupeta kaviri goho rekurima nemari inowanikwa nevarimi vadiki vezvekudya, kunyanya madzimai nevanhu veko, nekuona kuti pave negadziriro dzekudyara kwakasimba uye nekuvandudza kunaka kwevhu nevhu. Muna 2015, nharaunda yepasi rose yakagamuchira 17 pasi rose Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa kusimudzira hupenyu hwevanhu panosvika gore ra2030. Zvinangwa zva2030 ndezvekupedza mhando dzose dzekushaya chikafu chinovaka muviri kusanganisira kuzadzikisa zvinangwa zvakawiriranwa zvekurarisa nekufirwa nevana vari pasi pemakore mashanu kusvika muna 5 uye kugadzirisa zvinodiwa nevechidiki, vanasikana, madzimai akazvitakura nevakoti, uye vakwegura. Panosvika gore ra2025, goho rekurima uye mari yevarimi vadiki yekudya inofanira kuvandudzwa, kunyanya kumadzimai, zvizvarwa zvemo, varimi vemhuri, vafudzi, nevabati vehove, kusanganisira kuwaniswa kwakaenzana kweminda nezvimwe zviwanikwa, zvekushandisa, ruzivo, mabasa emari, mikana yemusika, kusika kukosha, uye mabasa asiri ezvekurima. Ita kuti mhuri, vana, vechidiki, nevakadzi vakwanise kutenga zvekudya zvinokwanisika uye zvinovaka muviri. Pedzisa nzara ne2030 nekuona kuti vanhu vose, kunyanya varombo uye vanhu vanotambura, kusanganisira vacheche, vawane zvokudya zvakachengeteka, zvinovaka muviri, uye zvakakwana gore rose. Tsvagiridzo yekukura kwevana: mhedzisiro inogamuchirwa zvakanyanya munzvimbo ino inoratidza hutano hwevana. Vana vakafuta vari pakati pezvakanangana neWorld Health Assembly. 
Nhasi, munhu mumwe chete pavanhu vana munyika anotambura nokusachengeteka kwezvokudya kuri pakati nepakati, uye mumwe mugumi nomumwe anotambura nokushaikwa kukuru kwezvokudya. Kuchinja kwemamiriro ekunze uye njodzi dzinongoitika dzoga dzakadai sekusanaya kwemvura, kuondomoka kwevhu, nemafashamu zvinokanganisawo chikafu chibatiso. Chirevo kubva kuHurumende yeChikafu chibatiso uye Nutrition 2020 inofungidzira kuti imwezve 80a130 miriyoni vanhu vanogona kunge vasina kudya kunovaka muviri panosvika 2020, zvichienderana nekuwanda kwekusagadzikana kwehupfumi munyika imwe neimwe. Kushaikwa kwekudya kunovaka muviri kunotarisirwa kuramba kuchiwedzera panguva yeCOVID 19 denda. World Bank inoshandisa iyo 2020 Covidien-19 National longitudinal phone ongororo yekutarisa kusachengeteka kwechikafu munyika dzakati wandei. Danone ikambani inotungamira pasi rose yechikafu nechinwiwa yakatsaurirwa kuvandudza hutano uye hwakagara huripo hwekudya nekunwa kuunza hutano nekudya kune vanhu vakawanda sezvinobvira. Tinoziva pasi rose, systemic, uye yakakura matambudziko tinotarisana nevanhu vanoyedza kupa chikafu vanhu mabhiriyoni mapfumbamwe uye zvipenyu zvechisikigo pasi pekumanikidzwa. Mutemo weUN Women’s to End Hunger unotsigira basa revakadzi muchikafu chibatiso sechinhu chekona chekugadzirwa kwechikafu nekudzokorodza. rutsigiro rweNational Food Council, Sri Lanka iri kuita chikafu chibatiso uye kudya inivhesitimendi chirongwa chakanangana nekuvandudza mamiriro ezvekudya evakadzi nevana mumatunhu ane hurombo. Ecuador iri kuvaka mikana yemari kune varidzi vadiki uye emuno zvigadzirwa zvekugadzira kuti vagadzirise kugadzirwa kwechikafu chemuno nekuisa zvirinani kuwana kwakachengeteka, kudhura, uye chikafu chinovaka muviri.

Utano Hwakanaka uye zvakanaka

 
Pakanga paine 74 NCDs vakafa muna 2019. Muna 2019 vanhu vanofungidzirwa kuva miriyoni gumi vakabatwa nechirwere chetibhii (10% yevarume vakuru, 5.6% yevakadzi vakuru, uye 3.2% yevana) uye 1.2% yevanhu vane HIV, chinonyanya kukonzera rufu zvisungo zvinotapukira. Kuwanda kwechirwere chetibhi kwakadzikira kubva pazviitiko zvitsva zana nemakumi manomwe nenomwe uye kudzoka kwevagari zviuru zana muna 82 kusvika zana nemakumi matatu muna174 uye huwandu hwekufa pakati pevanhu vasina hutachiwana hweHIV hwakadzikira makumi mana neshanu muzana panguva imwechete zvisinei nekuderera kwechirwere cherurindi. Mu100,000, kunwa kwepasi rose kunoyerwa mumalita ewaini yakachena pamunhu ane makore gumi nemashanu zvichikwira yaive 2000 litita, yakaderera chikamu che130% kubva pa2019 litres muna 45. Huwandu hwepasi rose hwenjodzi yemumugwagwa hwakaderera kubva pa2019 (15 vakafa pavanhu 5.8 5 mu 6.1) kusvika pa2010 ​​muna 8.3. Huwandu hwepasi rose hwekuzviuraya hwakaderera kubva pa18.1 (100,000 vakafa pa2010 vagari muna 16.7) kusvika 2019 (2.9). Pakati pegore ra13.0 na100,000, huwandu hwevanhu vanozviona sevane hutano kana hutano hwakanaka hwakawedzera ne2000 muzana mapoinzi. Nekudaro, pane misiyano yakakosha, pamwe nenhamba yehupenyu hwakanaka pagore rakazvarwa mu9.2 ichichinja ne2019 pagore pakati penyika. Chiyero chevanhu vane hutano hwakanaka uye hwakanaka hutano hwakasiyanawo zvakanyanya pakati peNhengo Nyika, kubva pa2014% kusvika 2019%. MuSub-Saharan Africa, mwero wacho waive 1.3 muzana yevakazvarwa vari vapenyu muna 2019. Kufa kwemadzimai munyika dzichiri kusimukira kwakapetwa ka20.2 kudarika nyika dzakabudirira, uye munyika zhinji dzichiri kusimukira, vakadzi vari munyika dzichiri kusimukira havagashi hutano hweveruzhinji hwavanoda.
 
Nyika haina kutarisana nerimwe dambudziko rehutano pasi rose kupfuura Covid-19, izvo zvakaparadzira kutambura kwevanhu, kukanganisa upfumi hwenyika yose, uye kuchinja upenyu hwemabhiriyoni evanhu pasi pose. Takaita fambiro mberi huru mukurwisa zvinoverengeka zvezvikonzero zvinozivikanwa zvikuru zvokufa nehosha. Uwandu hwehupenyu hwakwira, kufa kwevacheche nemadzimai panguva yekusununguka kwadzikira, uye tashandura mhepo pakurwisa HIV nemarariya, nzufu nehafu. Kutyisidzirwa kutsva kubva mukushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze, kukakavara, uye kushomeka kwechikafu zvinoreva kuti pane zvakawanda zvinoda kuitwa kuti vanhu vabve muhurombo. Kupedza ndufu dzinodziviririka pakati pevacheche nevana vari pasi pemakore mashanu kusvika muna 5: nyika dzinofanira kuva nechinangwa chekudzikisa kufa kwevacheche kusvika pa2030 kune 12 1,000 vanozvarwa vari vapenyu uye kusvika pamakumi maviri neshanu pa25 vanozvarwa vari pasi pemakore mashanu. Uye panosvika 1,000, kupera kwedenda seAIDS, tibhii, nemarariya, pamwe chete nehosha dzemunzvimbo dzinopisa dzakaregeredzwa, uye kurwisa hosha yokuzvimba kwechiropa, zvirwere zvinokonzerwa nemvura, uye zvimwe zvirwere zvinoparadza. Na2030, chetatu chevanhu vakafa nguva isati yakwana kubva kuzvirwere zvisingatapuriranwe zvichadzikiswa nekudzivirira, kurapa, nekusimudzira hutano hwepfungwa nekugara zvakanaka.
 
Kuziva kudyidzana pakati pehutano nebudiriro, iyo Simba rinosimudzira zvinangwa (SDGs) inopa hurongwa hwekuda uye hwakazara hwekuita kuunza budiriro kuvanhu uye nepasi uye kupedza kusarongeka kunokonzeresa hutano husina kunaka nebudiriro. Chinangwa chechitatu chine donzvo rekupedza ndufu dzinodzivirirwa muvana vachangozvarwa nechikamu che3% uye kupedza zvirwere zvakaita seHIV, TB, malaria nezvirwere zvinokonzerwa nemvura. Kufambira mberi kwakatoitwa mukuvandudza kuwanikwa kwemvura yakachena nehutsanana, kuderedza marariya, tibhii, uye poriyo, uye kuderedza kupararira kweHIV/AIDS. Inotarisira kuve nechokwadi chehutano nekugara zvakanaka kwevanhu vose, kusanganisira kuzvipira kwakashinga kupedza denda reAIDS, tibhii, marariya, nezvimwe zvirwere zvinotapukira panosvika 5. Basa redu rekambani rekuunza hutano nekudya kune vanhu vakawanda sezvinobvira rinoenderana ne kuzvipira kwedu kune kufambira mberi kwevanhu uye tinoedza kukurudzira tsika dzekudya uye kunwa zvine hutano pamatanho ese ehupenyu, kutanga paudiki. Sekambani yepasi rose ine vashandi vanopfuura 2030 munyika makumi mashanu nenomwe, tinotenda kuti chinangwa chedu muhutano chinotanga nekutsigira kwatinoita hutano nekugara zvakanaka kwevashandi vedu. Kupiwa kwakakwana kwezvinovaka muviri kwakakosha kuti uve nechokwadi chekukura kwakanaka kwemuviri nepfungwa kwevana vadiki. Kuona kuti vanaamai nevana vanowana kudya kwakakwana mukati memazuva e100,000 57 kunobhadhara muhupenyu hwavo hwose uye kupa vana vanodzivirirwa kubva kuzvirwere uye vane mikana yakawanda yekuita zvakanaka kuchikoro. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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